Despite many claims from the Church of Scientology that Dianetics is an "exact science", there are no Scientific test to prove this statement. In fact, just the opposite there were two independent test which were both conducted in the 1950's by New York University. In one Harvey Jay Fischer tested Hubbard's therapy against three of it's claims and found that it had no effect on intellectual functioning, mathematical ability, or the degree of personality conflicts. And in the other test, Jack Fox tested Hubbard's thesis regarding recall of engrams, with the assistance of the Dianetic Research Foundation, and could not prove it. As a result Dianetics was from then on considered a pseudoscience to both the scientific and medical communities.